Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad - 883 Words

The Heart of Darkness is written by Joseph Conrad in the time period of British imperialism. In Heart of Darkness, we are shown that good and evil is a blurry concept, and not one of black and white. Thesis: The title of Conrad’s, Heart of Darkness, refers to power and lust, through the understanding of Fanon’s theory, we contract that the white imperialistic Europe is the darkness for the novella, however, due to his racist tendencies, Conrad describes the natives as black , or dark shapes as described in An Image of Africa. The Heart of Darkness describes the colonization of an African tribe for the purpose of obtaining ivory by The Company. The Company is housed in Belgium, Germany, but has recruited the help of Marlow to recover the bones of his predecessor, Fresleven. While entering the jungle Conrad describes the canapà ©s of the tree top casting a darkness that continues throughout their journey. This offers the reader a precursor as to what will be shown in the jungle, a darkness, an uncivilized community of â€Å"black shapes.† These black shapes are the natives of the Congo River, who have been forced into working for the company in the ivory trade. These natives are worked to near death and dehumanized to the point of being referred to as shapes and not as people. The natives are considered to be savages and are not referred to as human beings to further distance the relation between white Europeans and them. During communication between the natives, Achebe in AnShow MoreRelatedH eart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1471 Words   |  6 PagesIn the story Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad a sailor decides to travel to Africa on a whim, using family connections he enlists as the captain of a ship travelling up the Congo River. The novella provides many themes, however is the text in itself racist? One of the main concepts portrayed in Heart of Darkness is the treatment of the natives of Africa and their image. This is most commonly shown through the disparity of the image between what is said in the novel and what can be read throughRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad Essay1371 Words   |  6 Pagesevery human and everything created by humans has two sides to it: the form and the substance. Joseph Conrad’s novella â€Å"Heart of Darkness† shows precisely how dangerous it is to put our trust in a concept, for example: colonization, without realizing that most of the time one only gets to see the form and not the substance. In this essay, my purpose is to demonstrate that â€Å"Heart of Darkness† by Joseph Conrad is mainly a novella about the discrepancy between substance and form. In order to prove my pointRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1378 Words   |  6 PagesWoytassek AP English 12 Heart of Darkness Reading Log Author: Joseph Conrad Title: Heart of Darkness Original Publication Date: 1899 Kind of Writing: Heart of Darkness is a colonial novella of an expository narrative. Writer’s Purpose and Intended Audience Joseph Conrad wrote Heart of Darkness because he wanted to expose human temptation to experiment with darkness when one’s own desires overcome one’s morals. By writing from his own experience of exploring the Congo, Conrad draws conclusions thatRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad983 Words   |  4 PagesThe Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad is a story that takes place in the early 1890s and presents us with an odyssey of a traveler known as Marlow who confronts the dangers of the Congo jungle while also witnessing the wicked, inhumane treatment of the African natives. In the story, Marlow represents Joseph Conrad who had actually traveled up the Congo in 1890 and witnessed the European exploitation of the African natives firsthand. In the Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad exposes the inhumanityRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1350 Words   |  6 Pagesyears, Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad was a treasured classic, with many honourable themes and messages, as the author reveals the true nature of humanity by following an European sailor’s journey through the dark jungles of Africa and down the river Congo, all while watching as his own humanity changes. As society has evolved, however, Heart of Darkness has come under scrutiny, as the language is quite racist. Chinua Achebe, writer of An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of DarknessRead MoreHeart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad1329 Words   |  5 Pages Heart of Darkness is a novel written by Joseph Conrad. The setting of the book is in Belgian Congo, which was the most infamous European colony in Africa. This is a story about the protagonist Marlow’s journey to self discovery, and his experiences in Congo. Conrad’s story explores the colonialism period in Africa to demonstrate Marlow’s struggles. Along the way, he faces insanity, death, his fear of failure, and cultural contamination as he makes his was to the inner station. Conrad through theRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad968 Words   |  4 PagesJoseph Conrad’s novella The Heart of Darkness has been under controversy because of racial interpretations. The race factor in this novel has made some scholars and professors question the function the novella has in the classroom. However, Joseph Conrad had another view when writing the novel; to demonstrate how prejudice and dehumanizing the European culture is towards African Americans and their culture during this time period. European’s superior authority over African Americans is portrayedRead MoreHeart Of Darkness, By Joseph Conrad1306 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is the â€Å"horror† in Heart of Darkness, and what particular literary images develop that idea of horror in the novel? In Joseph Conrad’s, Heart of Darkness, there can be many literary images found within that develop the idea of horror. Heart of Darkness is noted for its horror within the Congo between the Africans and the Europeans. The horror in Heart of Darkness is a contribution of many ideas that are formed and contributed from the European colonists. The purpose of this essay aims to argueRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1076 Words   |  5 PagesWritten in the late 1800’s, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a novella about one man’s travel into the Congo Free State by way of the Congo River. The title â€Å"Heart of Darkness† actually holds two different meanings. Heart of Darkness is both a metaphor for a psychological â€Å"dark side† of man, and an allusion to Africa. The title suggests both a physical and mental reference. During the time the novel takes place, Africa was nick-named the dark continent because of how little the Europeans knewRead MoreHeart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad Essay1483 Words   |  6 PagesJoseph Conrad, author of Heart of Darkness, intriguingly uses an unnamed narrator in his novel that clearly becomes of importance right away in the introduction. Conrad’s narrator chooses to speak of the historical period in which Roman colonization took over what we now know as Great Britain. By connecting a Roman colonization story to one almost 2000 years later talking about the Belgians in Africa, Conrad reveals one of his own themes in the novel. He proposes that the Romans and Belgians

Monday, December 23, 2019

Essay Mccarthyism and Its Effects on America - 1593 Words

McCarthyism not only destroyed the lives and careers of many Americans but also the innocent image of the country. Senator Joe McCarthy from Wisconsin was the same as any man. But when he cried Communism the world seemed to listen.brbrFollowing the Cold War between Russia and the United States there came many hardships, such as unemployment and high inflation. These hardships produced a restless society. The society then looked for something or someone to blame (Fried, 39). They found someone to blame. Communists. Throughout the country there was a witch hunt known as the Red Scare. A basic idea was formed: Communism was evil. Anyone who participated in such evil was considered illegitimate and were to be excluded from such things as†¦show more content†¦Laws would hold no meaning and innocent people would be accused (Feuerlicht, 154). brbrCommunists were everywhere. But they were hard to identify because Communism was a philosophy. There was no way a person could provide su pporting evidence that someone believed in something (Feuerlicht, 154). According to McCarthy there were over 200 Communists in the State Department (Feuerlicht, 55). And some 57 cases of people who fall into the category of card - carrying Communists, loyalist of the Communist Party, or risks to the nation (Divine, 265). Despite the issue of Communists in America there was a bigger issue, Communist spies. Though the truth of the matter is that all countries spy and are spied on, even America. The shock felt by the nation was not lessened (Feuerlicht, 54). Communist spies were the worst kind because they were not the type that stole plans for new weapons they worked from within. They were the people helping us build our policy (Divine, 265). These Communist spies were also hard to find because very few made it easy and confessed to being a spy. One such a person was a German named Klaus Fuchs. He confessed to spying for the Russians while he worked on the development of the atom bom b (Fried, 120).brbrMany Americans lives and careers were lost due to McCarthy and his accusations. Hollywoods leaders resisted allowing politicians to regulate their hiring practices, but following the HUAC hearings the blacklists began inShow MoreRelatedEssay on Joseph McCarthy and the Red Scare1134 Words   |  5 Pagesafraid of the â€Å"reds†, or communists. The cold war had a large affect on this, because it is when America became afraid of communists or Russians. McCarthyism affected everyone in America Most citizens were afraid of the reds, some were former or current reds, some were accused and persecuted for being an assumed red. It’s clear that McCarthyism played a big role in the development of America. McCarthyism became a household term, not only associated with the red scare. It is now a term used for anyRead MoreMccarthyism : The Victim Of Mccarthyism?1500 Words   |  6 PagesMcCarthyism, first look at the word and around 90% of people wonder what it actually means. McCarthyism is â€Å"the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion or treason without any means or evidence†. So now that that’s out of the way, the new question people are asking themselves now is â€Å"How was Hollywood the PERPETRATOR rather than the VICTIM of McCarthyism?† McCarthyism most often seen in America during the period of time from 1950 to 1956, otherwise known as the â€Å"Second Red Scare†Read MoreMccarthyism And The Salem Witch Trials1360 Words   |  6 PagesEnglish 11A B3 17 December, 2015 McCarthyism Our job as Americans and as Republicans is to dislodge the traitors from every place where they ve been sent to do their traitorous work.(McCarthy, Joseph R.) McCarthyism is when people make accusations of treason without evidence, and take advantage of some extreme fear in order to send people they don’t like to jail or to death. Though wrong, it was used many times throughout history. I intend to explain how McCarthyism is comparable to what happenedRead MoreEssay about McCarthyism versus the Salem Witch Trials1198 Words   |  5 Pagesaccused of crimes so absurd that when put to trial, they name others of the same crime to redirect the focus from them to others like it happens in the actual day, every year, with minor cases. McCarthyism was one of those cases that changed history, likewise the Salem Witch Trials. McCarthyism had the same effect on people, people who were accused of communism blame others to lessen their penalty like in the Salem Witch Trials, so how the Salem Witch Trials and the McCarthy Era can connects althoughRead MoreThe Cold War and Its Effect on The History of America Essay1706 Words   |  7 Pages The Cold War was the ideological conflict between the two superpowers of the world, the democratic United States of America and the communist Soviet Union. For over fifty years the two superpowers fought each other indirectly for power and control of the world. The Cold War started after the end of the Second World War in 1945 when the eyes of both superpowers were no longer looking at Nazi Germany, but instead at each other and the fate of the rest of the world. The Cold War began after the SecondRead MoreThe Campaign Of Joseph Mccarthy1373 Words   |  6 Pagesin Wheeling, West Virginia, McCarthy proclaimed that he was aware of two hundred five card carrying members of the communist party who worked for the United States Department of State (â€Å"McCarthyism†). On February 20, 1950, McCarthy addressed the Senate and made a list of claims and cited eight one cases (â€Å"McCarthyism†). The Senate then called for a full investigation. McCarthy took advantage of the ci tizens’ fear of communism, conveying how he deceived the nation to reach the superiority he wishedRead MoreEssay about The Crucible by Arthur Miller981 Words   |  4 Pagesvery strict in personal habits and morality; swearing, drunkenness and gambling would be punished. The people of Salem believed in the devil and thought that witchcraft should be hunted out. The play can be seen as a general statement on the effects that fear and fanaticism can have on human beings and how one person can cause such catastrophe. It is a purely a controversial play, so why write a play knowing the danger you were putting yourself in? Arthur Miller wrote the play becauseRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller Essay1646 Words   |  7 PagesActivities Committee that was created during the Cold War when communism was spreading, but Miller never actually referenced it in the play. Although Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is set in the late 1600s, it offers a fine example of allegory of McCarthyism in the 1950s. During the late 1600s in Salem, Massachusetts, people are experiencing a somewhat mass hysteria as the witch trials occur. The main plot of the play revolves around a group of people in Salem. In begins with Abigail Williams and otherRead More The Causes of McCarthyism Essay1154 Words   |  5 PagesThe Causes of McCarthyism As an individual in the middle of Twentieth century Joseph McCarthy had a rather intense effect on society. He started the movement that bears his name. McCarthyism was the movement that caused many changes in the lives of the people of the 1950s. McCarthy headed the charge against communism in the United States after the second World War. Through his actions many people were accused of being communists and hastilly judged to be so because of the generalRead MoreMccarthyism In The Writing Of The Crucible By Arthur Miller1440 Words   |  6 Pagesdiscussing how McCarthyism and the historical Salem witch trials influenced the writing of the crucible. The Crucible is a play that was written by Arthur Miller in the mid 1950’s. One of the things that is interesting about this play is that it is based on a true story which grabs the attentions of many. The Author Arthur miller, bases this story to the carry the debate on the alleged McCarthyism. Mr. Miller along with ot her supporters of communist were at that time active in America. They were asked

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Legal Implications for Human Resources Management Free Essays

Human resources are the most important resources in an organization and there is a need for human resource management to consider legal implications for every decision they make in regard to employee benefits. Today, organizations are faced with numerous challenges in sustaining a well-motivated workforce. To ensure that an organization retains the best human resources, several measures are put in place key of which is employee benefits, which is given to the top or executive employees as a motivation to ensure that the organization retains such employees. We will write a custom essay sample on Legal Implications for Human Resources Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now Employee benefits range from organization to organization but generally, they include short-term benefits, long-term benefits, termination benefits as well as post-retirement benefits. (Armstrong, 2002). Pay gap is one of the greatest issues that companies face with regard to employee benefits. Although the pay gaps can be explained by human capital differences, the travel patterns of different employees, there is also the other dimension of occupational segregation as well as workplace segregation, which has been found to bring disparities in regard to employee benefits. (Lowman, 2002). Pay gap can be a source of demotivation of staff as well as a leading cause of lack of unity of purpose in an organization. Whenever an organization decides to reward men differently from women this can be a source of conflicts in the organization and it is therefore, major challenge organizations are faced with today. Pay gap characterized by gender is a legal problem as it boils down to discrimination in the workplace. This has implications both for the employees involved as well as the organization given the fact that, these differences in employee benefits allotment creates a feeling of discontentment. In situations where the difference in pay is as a result of level of education or work experience, then this is understandable. However, often employee benefits have been found to be abused by human resource managers in designing rewards. (Thrope, 2000). Discrimination especially based on race, gender, nationality and color is a major issue that companies face with regard to employee benefits. It is evident that, the economic security of employees is very much dependent on other variables such as race, color and nationality something which can be seen as a major issue that companies face with regard to employee benefits. The fact that there are very many immigrant workers in the USA, has created an enabling environment whereby employers can abuse the rights of employees in regards to employee benefits without having to worry about legal implications since most immigrant workers do not have valid papers and it is therefore, not possible for such employees to take legal actions against employers even whereby there are cases of discrepancies in awarding of employee benefits. (Lowman, 2002). The other challenge facing companies with regard to employee benefits is the requirements by the law for a minimum wage rate. This is an issue in that, many companies have been forced to disregard employee benefits citing the mandatory minimum wage limit as being burdensome and being non-responsive to changing market situations. For instance, the wage limits fail to bear in mind that times are changing and competition is becoming stiff with globalization and pegging rewards on other factors other than market forces is likely to have a negative impact on employers decisions regarding to employee benefits. As a result, many employers are less willing to award employee benefits solely because they consider the minimum wage limit requirement as burdensome and exorbitant. (Armstrong, 2002). Over emphasis of pay as a form of motivation is a major issue that companies face in regards to employee benefits. Many companies offer employee benefits in terms of monetary value in total disregard of evidence showing that money is not always a motivator to every employee as there are some employees who work for different reasons other than money. The challenge companies face in this regard is to reform their employee scheme to reflect different needs for their employees. (Thrope, 2000). Finally, there is the dilemma of just how effective are employee benefits in increasing performance? Employees’ benefits as administered in many companies are meant to boost the morale of employees as the prospects of employee benefits is thought to have a positive impact on employee loyalty and commitment to duties. However, the issue arising here is the fact that, by just giving post-retirement benefits or long-term benefits as well as travel allowances, this does not automatically guarantee that employees will remain loyal and committed to the organization. To deal with the issues raised above, organizations need to work on programs, which are agreeable to both employers and employees by involving employee unions in designing of employee benefits packages. This will ensure that every interest is taken care of. Another important thing that organizations ought to do to deal with the issues above is to address human capital differences, especially those differences arising from other factors other than level of education or work experience. There is also a need for organizations to put in place strict rules and regulations as well as workplace policies to do away with any form of discrimination in the workplace, which ultimately reflects on the awarding of employee benefits. It is also important that organizations de-emphasize employee benefits as a form of motivation and opt for other types of rewards, which have little monetary connections. If the above is done, the problem of ineffectiveness of employee benefits will be dealt with and organizations will address the challenges of employee benefits. Potential future issues that organizations will encounter regarding employee benefits may include; high demand for tuition reimbursement considering the fact that due to rapid spread of information technology, new knowledge is released into the market at a fast rate, which means employees have to keep updated through employee training. Another area or potential future issue that organizations may encounter in regard to employee benefits is any new legislations especially aimed at either legalizing the immigration status of all immigrant workers or expelling the immigrant workers. (Lowman, 2002). In conclusion, it has emerged from the above discussion that, major issues that companies face with regard to employee benefits include; pay gap, gender discrimination, over emphasis of employee benefits as a form of motivation as well as lack of clarity on the effectiveness of employee benefits to employee performance. It has become evident that organizations need to de-emphasize on employee benefits as a form of motivation and in addition, there is a need for employers to deal with the problem of discrimination as well as the discrepancy in pay gap. Lastly, employers need to reposition themselves in readiness for future legislations, which may have impact on employee benefits such as legislations on immigration and minimum wage limit. References Armstrong, M. 2002. PP.110-120. Employee Reward. 3rd Ed. CIPD. Lowman, R. 2002. PP.104-109. California School of Organizational Studies Handbook of Organizational Consulting Psychology. Jossey-Bass. Thrope, R. Homan, G. 2000. PP. 89-93. Strategic Reward System. FT. Prentice Hall. Â   How to cite Legal Implications for Human Resources Management, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Clinical Depression A Disease Like Any free essay sample

Other. Essay, Research Paper Clinical Depression: a disease like any other. Clinical depression is defined as # 8220 ; a temper or emotional province that is marked by unhappiness, inaction and a decreased ability to bask life # 8221 ; ( 2:21 ) . Depression is really different from the blues that people feel at one clip or another. It is an unwellness, the same manner that malignant neoplastic disease or diabetes are unwellnesss. Depression affects the full organic structure and non merely the head. In most instances, it can be successfully treated. This disease affects all ages, all races, all economic groups and both gender. Depression is one of the prima causes of alcohol addiction, drug maltreatment, other dependences and self-destruction. Depression was diagnosed as far back as in the times of Hippocrates, an ancient Grecian doctor, who called the disease melancholia. He viewed it as an unnatural behaviour which was caused by other diseases. Hippocrates recommended remainder, exercising and a alteration in 1s diet as intervention to this unwellness. Later, in the in-between ages, this unnatural behaviour was considered to be a consequence of diabolic ownership. It was treated with dispossession, welting and anguish to drive the evil liquors from the organic structure. It wasn # 8217 ; t until the late 19th and early twentieth centuries that doctors had a more scientific position on depression. Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer discovered that depression is a psychological and non a diabolic force or organic abnormalcy. Depression is caused by many factors. The loss of a loved one during childhood or other traumatic experiments ( Internet Explorer. maltreatment ) can increase individual # 8217 ; s opportunities of developing depression subsequently on in life. The figure one cause of depression is stress. The mundane emphasiss in life can construct up and do a individual to interrupt down wholly. Scientists have found that depression can be caused by # 8220 ; the faulty ordinances of release of one or more of course happening endocrines in the encephalon ( norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine ) # 8221 ; ( Nemroff, portion 16 ) . When these endocrines are non regulated decently in the encephalon, it causes the down temper. In recent old ages, scientists have found more A ; more grounds, through research, that depression may caused by a familial defect and it may be familial. # 8220 ; Surveies of indistinguishable twins ( who are genetically identical ) and fraternal twins ( whose cistrons by and large are no more likewise than those of other pair siblings ) besides support an inherit constituent # 8221 ; ( Peterson 1417 ) . These surveies have shown that depression is greater in a brace of indistinguishable twins than in fraternal twins. Although surveies on this theory expression conclusive, geneticists are yet to happen the exact cistron on which this disease can be located on. In many instances, the instances, the cause of 1s depression is really difficult to trap point. The sick person may hold experienced something so traumatising that the event may hold been blocked off from their witting memory. Different people suffer from depression for different grounds. But in every instance of depression, the symptoms are ever similar. Some of the more apparent symptoms are: Persistent unhappiness, anxiety, empty temper Feeling of hopelessness, pessimism Loss of involvement of activities Insomnia, oversleeping Loss of appetite and/or weight loss or gorging Fatigue, decreased energy Ideas of decease or self-destruction Restlessness, crossness Concentration loss, memory loss Without intervention, these symptoms can last for hebdomads, months or old ages. Not everyone who is depressed will see every symptom because there are assorted types of depression. The most common depression is called dysthmia or mild depression. # 8220 ; This status involves chronic down temper, and hapless s elf-esteem† ( †Types† , portion 3 ) Peoples with mild depression can work but are ever sad. In many instances, the causes of dysthmia can non be explained. A individual can steal into dysthmia every bit easy as catching a cold. The following type of depression is called major depression. Major depression causes desperation and hopelessness to an extreme that the sick person loses complete involvement in their life and reaches a point that are incapable of feeling pleasance. Major depression besides causes people to remain in bed for yearss and non eat for yearss. Like dysthmia, frequently major depression sick persons try to perpetrate self-destruction and frequently win. Bipolar upset, the 3rd type of depression, is besides known as frenzied depression. # 8220 ; This upset involves major depressive episodes jumping with high-energy periods or wildly unrealistic activity # 8221 ; ( # 8221 ; Types # 8221 ; , portion 13 ) . For illustration, a frenzied depressive can name at 4am and say that they are traveling to Las Vegas to get married Frank Sinatra and star in a musical. This behavior seems normal to them but is really irrational to foreigners. The last 2 types of depression are # 8220 ; Atypical Depression # 8221 ; and # 8220 ; Post-Partum Depression # 8221 ; . Atypical depression is when a individual feels gloomy for a twosome of yearss and so is all right. This keeps jumping until the sick person breaks down wholly and needs speedy medical attending. Post-partum depression is a mild unhappiness and anxiety that new female parents frequently experience. Often the cause of post-partum is the bead in endocrine degree after the babe is delivered. When a adult female in pregnant, there are high degrees of female sex endocrines that circulate and this is wholly reduced after bringing which causes biochemical depression. Equally shortly as a individual is diagnosed with depression, it is highly importantto Begin intervention. There are 2 chief signifiers of intervention for depression. The first intervention is normally psychotherapy. This signifier of intervention attempts to alter the manner patients think and interact with others. The 2nd method of intervention is the prescribing of anti-depressant medicines. Anti-depressant medicines send nervus urges to the encephalon to trip the circulation of the inactive endocrines. # 8220 ; They elevate temper in 60 to 80 per centum of people who use them as directed # 8221 ; ( # 8221 ; Anti-Depressants # 8221 ; 247 ) . Depression is such a complex disease. This likely due to the fact that it is a upset or the encephalon and scientists have merely begun to detect the enigmas of encephalon. A individual that slips into depression merely like cathing a cold makes depression an even bigger enigma. Even after patients of depression are decently diagnosed and treated, some backsliding and faux pas back into a greater depression. This, rather frequently, can non be explained which makes it even more frustrating for the patient every bit good as to people around. Everyday scientists are developing new methods and medicines to handle depression more efficaciously, but no medicines can of all time be relied on for 100 % recovery. The patient has to desire to acquire better and besides needs emotional support from household members. Without these 2 factors playing a large function in recovery, the sick person will likely retreat wholly from society and this could perchance ensue in decease! Bibliography 1. # 8220 ; Depression. # 8221 ; Encyclopedia Britannica: Micropedia. Vol 4. 1992. 2. Nemeroff, Charles B. # 8220 ; The Neurobiology of Depression. # 8221 ; Scientific American. On-line. Internet. 26 April 1998. Available: www.sciam.com 3. Peterson, Shelly. # 8220 ; Unmasking Depression. # 8221 ; Journal of Consulting A ; Clinical Psychology. V64. N6. Dec 1996. page 1417. 4. # 8220 ; Types. # 8221 ; Depression.com. On-line. Internet. 1998. Available: www.depression.com ( parts 3 A ; 13 ) . 5. # 8220 ; Anti-Depressants. # 8221 ; The Gerontologist. V38. N2. April 1998. P247.