Friday, November 29, 2019

oi23 Essays - Prophets Of Islam, Biblical People In Islam

When many Americans here the term Islam or Muslim they associate it with such groups as the Nation of Islam or the Black Muslims. However these groups and others like them often have very little in common with the true Islamic faith. They use the term Islam to generate support for their causes, but in so doing they often destroy the public?s view of the main Islamic faith. The People of the Book is an honorary title given to the Jewish, Christian and Muslim faiths. All three religions believe in one God and in his word, delivered through the prophets: Moses received the word of God in the Torah, Jesus and the Gospels and Muhammad and the Quran. The three religions also share a similar belief in prophethood; many Christians are stunned to hear that many Biblical prophets are also considered Islamic prophets. The Quran says in (2:136) Say we believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and the revelation given to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to the prophets from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another of them, and to Him we are submitters. Islam does have many differences from the other two religions but it does preach a message of tolerance. Mohammad said, ?Whoever hurts a person from the people of the book it will be as though he hurt me personally.? Islam is closer to Christianity and Judaism then they are to each other since it recognizes both as divine religions where Christians have already seen their Messiah and the Jewish people are still awaiting his appearance.(Islam and the Others) There is no room in Islam to believe that God could have walked the earth. They hold God in such a high, and majestic place that even to consider such a thought is ridiculous. They can also not believe the fact that God worked for six days and then had to rest on the seventh day. God is all powerful and therefore would not need a day of rest.(Islam and the Others) The Jewish and the Musl im religions could be considered cousins because of Abraham, their common grandfather. Abraham was married to Sarah, but because she was barren Sarah offered Abraham her slave Hagar. Hagar had one child, a boy named Ismail. Sarah grew jealous and forced her husband to ban the two from her house. (The annual Muslim ritual of Hajj honors the pain the mother faced when her food ran out and she was searching for water until the sudden eruption of the well.) Years later Sarah had a son named Isaac, the father of Jacob who became Israel, father of the twelve tribes. From Abraham?s lineage came fourth two religions: Islam through Ismail and Judaism threw Isaac. To the Muslim people Ismail and Isaac are two equally blessed prophets. However to the Jewish people Abraham had only one son, Isaac, because Ismail?s mother was a maid. A major difference between the two religions is their stances on Jesus. The Muslims believe Jesus was a genuine messenger of God, sent to deliver God?s message to t he Jewish people. The Quran says: ?We killed Christ Jesus son of Mary the messenger of God?But they killed him not, nor crucified him...only a likeness of that was shown to them and those who differ therein are full of doubts with no knowledge but only conjecture to follow. For a surety they killed him not: Nay, God raised him up unto Himself, and God is most exalted, wise. This passage also brings up another interesting view of the Islamic faith. By saying that it was not Jesus who was crucified, but rather a likeness of him, the Islamic faith is releasing any responsibility for Jesus death on the Jewish people. The Muslims hold Jesus and Mary in very high regard. Although Jesus is not considered to be the Messiah by the Muslims he is considered to be a very important prophet. Jesus cannot be the Messiah because according to the Quran God cannot be begotten. ?He is Allah the one; Allah, the eternal, absolute; He begets not, nor is he begotten; and

Monday, November 25, 2019

How to Write a Short Essay on Global Warming in World Climate Change

How to Write a Short Essay on Global Warming in World Climate Change The general guidelines for writing a short essay are similar to that of writing your average essay. The only difference is that the essay must be short while also covering everything you intend to discuss regardless of its length. So when writing a short essay on global warming and human health in world climate change, it is important to start off with a catchy topic and discuss your stance or ideas in brief and precise manner. You should also make use of important facts including those that can be found in this article on the top 10 facts on global warming and human health in world climate change. Here are some tips on achieving the precision a short essay requires. Get the Topic Right The topic of a short essay is the most important part of your entire paper which means it must be done right. This is because it is the first paragraph that catches the reader’s eye while attempting to capture the mind. A good essay topic on global warming is â€Å"Global Warming Could Kill You†. This topic is precise and strikes a reaction – of fear, wariness or amusement - in the reader. Thereby grabbing reader’s attention to at least scan through your work to learn more about what your essay is about. Introduce Your Topic Accurately A good introduction for a short essay on global warming and human health in world climate change should tell the reader all about the contents of the paper. This includes what statement or arguments you intend to make as well as the nuggets of wisdom the reader will be blessed with on reading the essay. Ideally, your introduction should consist of 90 to 100 hard hitting words on global warming and the human condition. Work on the Body All arguments or facts you intend to provide should be present in the body of your essay. And since it is a short one, it’s thereby important to make use of facts and statements that ring true with the reader. Using our topic as an example, your body must contain facts on how global warming and climate change is currently affecting human health and how the number of causalities is set to increase in the future. A Structured Body Is Key This is a follow up on the above tip. Integrating facts into your short essay does not mean you should cram every available writing space with scary facts and figures. It means that you should argue about your stance on things using one or two hard facts that will pass your message across to your intended audience. An example is providing insight to the amount of people affected by wildfires and droughts caused by global warming and climate change. Conclude in Style Your conclusion should not be wasted on further buttressing your point but it should get the audience on your side of the argument or to act on the facts you have provided in the body of your essay. A good conclusion for a short essay on global warming and human health in world climate change should get people to act today and take on alleviating the practice  that lead to these changes. Tips are a way to provide direction for those in need of help and we hope these tips serve you well in your journey to master the art of writing short essays. You can also choose your topic from this list of 20 short essay topics on global warming and human health in world climate change.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Sudan's Political Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Sudan's Political Development - Essay Example As an outcome of the civil wars of many years, Sudan split into two separate countries north and south as a peaceful process. The people of Sudan did not only undergo the drastic impacts of the wars but the social and economic development of the country also collapsed. Moreover, the history of Sudan exposes the fact that Sudan has come under experience more years of violence than that of peace, harmony and tranquility (Levy & Latif, pp. 7-30). Throughout the epoch of the pre-colonial times, Sudan did not socially, politically, economically and politically came under amalgamation into a spatial system. In addition, independent kingdoms and sultanates have been the key features that had their own distinct territorial or colonial boundaries. Few of the socio-political and economic bodies that incorporate Funj Kingdom and Darfur Sultanate have been very substantial and crucial for Sudan in fabricating their spatial system as a strong economic, social, and political constitute. Moreover, the kingdom practiced the Islamic and Arabic culture and civilizations for which they have had been prominent in the history of Sudan. ... ntry has come under division between two heritages: The Arab heritage that covered the northern portion of Sudan and the African heritage that refers to the southern region. Sudan is a country with a very diverse population due to its two different legacies where the natives belong to different ethnic, linguistic, cultural, religious, and social background. This diversity amongst the people emerged in to economic disparity and disproportion that formed the matter of subject into economic instabilities and gave rise to the variations in the political history of the country (Suleiman, pp. 255-260). The records of the past of Sudan provide with the evidence that two colonial administrations that is Egypt and Britain has jointly governed and ruled over Sudan. The colonial supervision that was mutually ruled came under the verdict as condominium government. The racial or cultural issues that came under disputes in all the British African colonies during the colonial period, postcolonial p eriod until the twenty first century came under the direct influence by the system of British government. The Egyptians rule over Sudan was a part of the cooperative and combined authority that came under condominium. According to the records, even though Egypt was pleased with the Britain’s contribution in the re-conquest of Sudan, yet the harmony became unsuccessful in elucidating the relationship between the two powers in Sudan (Bell, pp. 10-20). The correlation and affiliation with Egypt is another significant aspect that played a crucial role in shaping and the progression of Sudan. The invasion of Sudan by the Egyptian army in the early years of the nineteenth century initiated the relationship between the two countries. However, the augmented control of Egypt over Sudan for more

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The competitive advantage of the Country Singapore using Porter's Essay

The competitive advantage of the Country Singapore using Porter's Competitive advantage and the Diamond factors - Essay Example We also find out in this study that, though the country has a natural small land area, the country capabilities and efficient and effective use of information technology has more than compensated for its present international position in the shipping and sea transportation industry. The country position and image has been further enhanced through electronic government that has transformed public services. This paper examined the competitive advantage of Singapore using Porters competitive advantage of nations. Porter tries to solve apparent puzzle of a country's competitive advantage, or why one country is more competitive than the other through the attributes of his competitive advantage of nations (Porter 1990).These constitute the essence of his notion of competitive advantage. Porter (1990) echoes an important question in which he provides a succinct answer. For example, "why does a nation achieve international success in a particular industry Porter argues that, the answer to this question lies in four broad attributes of a nation that shape the environments in which local firms compete and promote or impede the creation of competitive advantage." (1990:71). ... The first part of the paper examined Porter's competitive advantage of nation, the second part of the paper looks at this competitive advantage with respect to Singapore. The last part of the paper provides a brief finding conclusions and recommendations. 1.1 Porter's Competitive Advantage of Nation-Porter's Diamond Porter's essential task in his ground breaking tool was to explain why a nation would succeed in a particular industry and not in another. In the words of Porter (1990), "in global competition, firms from any nation can gain scale economies by selling worldwide" (Porter 1990:71). To the researcher, which nation's firms will do so Thus, to Porter, a range of new explanations for trade has been proposed. One is economies of scale which give the nation's firms that are able to capture them a cost advantage that allows them to export, but however this theory are fraud with gross weaknesses (Porter 1990). Porter in his ground breaking work of (1990) postulates that a nation's competitive advantage can be deduced from his four attributes of competitive advantage. These attributes include include (1) factor conditions, which he defines as: "The nation's position in factors of production, such as skilled labor or infrastructure, necessary to compete in a given industry." (Porter 1990). The second attribute in Porter's competitive advantage of Nations is the demand conditions. Porter (1990) refers to this as the nature of home demand for industry's product or service. The third attributes of Porter's competitive advantage of nations focuses on related and supporting industries, which according to Porter (1990) refers as: "The presence or

Monday, November 18, 2019

Discuss some of the treats that Cyberterrorism pose. How can Essay

Discuss some of the treats that Cyberterrorism pose. How can cyberattacks be prevented - Essay Example This new class of threats has been termed as cyber – threats, and in the present scenario, there is no section of society that can afford it. The modus operandi of cyber – threats entails the employment of computer technology to perpetrate fraud, heinous crimes and other harmful acts against society. These threats are principally aimed at destroying the internal order of society. Thus, cybercrime can be understood as crimes that are committed through computer networks or by using the Internet (Brenner 381 - 383). Terrorists harvest money and indulge in other criminal objectives via computer technology. Their requirements for conducting such nefarious activities are a personal computer with an internet connection. With this arsenal, even smalltime cyber terrorists can communicate with other members in their group and their opponents. They utilize the internet to share novel methods to employ in their future attacks and other important information. Terrorists have created their own intelligence networks through the internet; and the expenditure incurred by them, in gathering intelligence is negligible, in comparison to the amount spent by most nations for collecting intelligence. Furthermore, terrorists can easily plan and execute their operations through computer networks. These terrorist groups assist each other, in order to enhance their cyber capabilities; and they interact with each other, for the purposes of planning and commissioning their projects. They have the capability to attack th e Global Information Grid and the systems connected to it. Their ultimate aim is to destroy critical infrastructure. The general perception is that terrorists are associated with physical violence and death. However, in marked variance to this general view about terrorists and their operations, several terrorists are highly educated and capable of handling the highly sophisticated computer technologies. These

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare ABSTRACT Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibits by machines. AI enable machines to think and solve problems somehow human-like and act or perform in human-like manner. AI is incomparable with human intelligence. However, AI can be implemented in humans’ daily lives to aid them with complicated tasks. One of the human intelligence issues is having barriers in performing good decision making. The aspect in decision making is also applied in a few AI field such as healthcare and robotics which will be discussed further in this paper. INTRODUCTION Technology is emerging day by day where people are hunger for more sophisticated technology to aid them or give them new perspectives or knowledge. Artificial Intelligence or commonly abbreviated as AI is the intelligence shown by machines or software, which usually involves human-like intelligence. It has become an academic field of study that focused on creating intelligence. The term â€Å"Artificial Intelligence† was coined by late John McCarthy of Stanford University in 1956 and after two years, he published his paper which regarded by many as the first one on logical AI (Bogue, 2014). Alan Turing, a British mathematician, cryptanalyst, computer scientist and biologist, proposed a test called Turing test to determine the machine’s ability to displays intelligence. The test requires a human judge to have natural conversations with a human and a machine that is designed to produce human-like performance. If the judge is failed to distinguish which one is human and wh ich one is machine, the machine is considered showing intelligence. CASE STUDY HUMAN INTELLIGENCE IN DECISION MAKING Human intelligence is considered as the most powerful tools in decision making. Definition of human intelligence is that a person has the intellectual capacity of a human, which characterized by perception, consciousness, self-awareness as well as volition. Through their intelligence, humans possess a cognitive ability to learn, form concepts, understand, apply logic and reason. The abilities also include the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, plan, solve problem, make decisions, retain and use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to experience and think, while decision making can be viewed as cognitive methodology used to determine a conviction or a blueprint among a few options of conceivable outcomes. Each decision settling on procedure delivers a last decision that could possibly provoke activity. Choice or decision making is the investigation of recognizing and picking choices focused around the qualities and inclination of the chief. Decision ma king is one of the focal exercise of administration and an immense piece of any methodology of usage. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ROBOTICS Application of AI as the most significant and exciting field in robotic development had been argued by many industrial commentators. AI technology has the potential to play a role in a diversity of robots including companion and caring robots such as autonomous land, sea and air vehicles, humanoid types, search and rescue robots, swarm robots, military robots and robotic toys. The element of AI have a role to play for instance dexterous manipulation, autonomous navigation, machine vision, speech recognition, pattern recognition and location and mapping (Bogue, 2014). Humanoid robots and autonomous, mobile robots are two field of robotic that represent the greatest number of AI concept. Honda’s Asimo, humanoid robot is a result of two decades of research in humanoid robotics by Honda engineers. Asimo has the ability to recognize moving objects, gestures, postures, sounds, faces and interact in a human-like manner. Figure 1 Honda’s Asimo The purpose of developing robotic vehicles and autonomous mobile robots is to conduct specific tasks such as search and rescue operations. A robotic vehicle called â€Å"Stanley† is developed in 2005 at Stanford University has won the Defense Advances Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge by driving autonomously for 131 miles along a trail that the vehicle never gone through before (Bogue, 2014). In the conference of the Robotic Industries Association (RIA) in November 2006, John Felice, VP Manufacturing Technology and Global Enterprise, Chrysler Group discuss the manufacturing challenge facing Chrysler. Reducing costs while remain competitive in the business is the obvious challenge. However, the main problem arises from the increasing number of car model and the frequency of model changes. These changeovers are time consuming and could cost millions of dollars. John Felice proposed that robotic is the key to solve the problem (Wilson, 2006). Major companies should enhance their research team to applied AI element in industrial robotics. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN HEALTHCARE The advancement in machine engineering has swayed the scientists to create programming with the purpose of aiding specialists in settling on choice without counseling the authorities specifically. The software development misuses the capability of human brainpower, for example, reasoning, making choice, adapting (by encountering) and numerous others. AI is not a new idea, yet it has been acknowledged as an issue innovation in software engineering. It has been connected in numerous ranges, for example, instruction, business, therapeutic and assembling. In most creating nation’s deficient of medicinal pro has built the mortality of patients, experienced different infections. The deficient of restorative pros will never be overcome inside a brief time of time. The establishments of higher learning could be that as it may, make a prompt move to deliver whatever number specialists as would be prudent. In any case, while sitting tight for understudies to end up specialists and the s pecialists to wind up experts, numerous patients may already die. Current practice for restorative treatment obliged patients to counsel master for further analysis and treatment. Other therapeutic specialist might not have enough mastery or experience to manage certain high-hazard sicknesses. In any case, the delayed period for medicines typically takes a couple of days, weeks or even months. When the patients see the specialist, the ailments may have officially spread out. As the greater part of the high-hazard sickness could just be cured at the early stage, the patients may need to languish over whatever remains of their life (Ishak Siraj, n.d). Machine program known as Medical Decision-Support System was intended to help well-being experts settle on clinical decision (Shortliffe, 1987). The framework manages medicinal information and learning area in diagnosing patients’ conditions and suggesting suitable medicines for the specific patients. Patient-Centered Health Information Systems is a patient focused restorative data framework created to aid checking, overseeing and decipher understandings medical history (Szolovits et al., 1994). Likewise the system gives support to patient and therapeutic specialist. The system serves to enhance the quality of medical choice making, builds patient consistence and minimizes iatrogenic illness and medical errors. In medical, communication is critical as new data or new revelation is the key for the future survival (Shortliffe et al., 2000). In expansion, communication helps specialists sharing their insight or expertise (Detmer and Shortliffe, 1997). As an example, a pro from Sy dney can give on-line therapeutic aid to specialist at Kuala Lumpur who is treating a patient that suffers from serious cancer problem. An alternate specialist from other nation, for example, United Kingdom can impart his experience managing the same cases. Communication between specialists or expert from other area helps specialist at Kuala Lumpur diagnosing his patient and gives appropriate treatment. Figure 2 Example of communication between specialists (Information Sharing) For example, AI is implemented in Healthcare is Remote Monitoring Of High-Risk Patients Using Artificial Intelligence by using strategy and framework for remote monitoring of high-risk patients using artificial intelligence. A majority of high risk patients can be at the same time checked without patient intercession. A patient hears questions in the specialists voice at each monitoring encounter and responds. The patients reactions are recorded at a remote focal monitoring station and can be examined on line or later (Langen, Katz, Dempsey, Pompano, 1993). Artificial intelligence (AI) and voice technology (DECvoice) are consolidated to present to the patient, during an observing session or experience, questions which would be chosen from a majority of distinctive recorded inquiries. Inquiries to the patient are picked utilizing AI, in light of the patients reaction, by parsing. The screen could take a few structures, for example, for e.g., uterine action strips, glucometers, blood pressure cuffs, pulse monitors, electroencephalographs, and so forth. Four phone lines are committed to every patient, one for the screen, one for the voice, one as a backup and one to sense failures. Dual tone matrix frequency signals (DTMF) may be utilized for transmission of checked signs and other data which can be perceived by Decvoice, which is yet one sample of the voice engineering which can be utilized (Langen et al., 1993). The Artificial Intelligence framework is determined by an easy to utilize Natural Language interface which guides the Voice framework to send (speak) appropriate questions, perceive (listen for) the patients answers, update the patients database, direct the telephone-patient monitoring, and advise the HMO office regarding discriminating patient conditions. The data obtained from the patient calls is accessible to the therapeutic specialist on both a real-time basis when the calls are being made, or on an ad-hoc basis after the calls are logged (Langen e t al., 1993). Figure 3 Example Remote Monitoring Of High-Risk Patients PROS IN BOTH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE Experts and scientists are eager in making machines which can copy humans’ intelligence. Somehow, AI shows undeniably great performances, in some cases even better than a human being. AI advantageously has tireless performance by doing tasks without feeling tired, unlike human. AI also provides more logical decision-making, which is very useful in some cases. Completing task also easy as AI is like a false mind, taught to do specific jobs. Human intelligence have barriers to get make a good decision-making. According to Dr. Edward Russo and Dr. Paul J. H. Schoemaker, a simple method have been produce to avoid the decision barriers faced by human intelligence and can be categorized into four main element. The first element is framing which is organizing the inquiry where this implies characterizing what must be chosen and deciding in preparatory way what criteria would make us incline toward one choice to an alternate. Another element is gathering intelligence by looking for bot understandable actualities and sensible evaluations of â€Å"mysterious† that we will need to settle on the choice. Third element would be coming to conclusion where sound framing and good intelligence do not guarantee a wise decision. Humans simply unable to consistently make good decisions using seat-of-the-pants judgment alone, even with excellent data in front of them. Humans need to learn from the feedback that they have acquired whi ch is the last element for a good decision-making. Everybody needs to create a framework for gaining from the consequences of past choices. This normally means staying informed regarding what is expected to happen, intentionally guarding against serving toward self-clarifications. CONS IN DECISION-MAKING OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE’S PERFORMANCE Good decisions are hard to make and there are several barriers that occurs when a person or people trying to make or find good decision. A good decision-maker must, consciously or unconsciously go through each phase of decisions making process (Westernberg, 1993). As in the aspect of human intelligence, one of the most common barrier that can interrupt brilliant decision making is plunging in. In this situation, people begin to gather information and reach conclusion without first taking a few minutes to think about the core of the issue they are facing or to think through how they believe decisions like this one should be made. People also undergo frame blindness, which is another barrier to a good-decision making. Frame blindness is where people setting out to solve the wrong problem because they have created a mental framework for their decision with little thought, which causes them to overlook the best options or lose sight of important objectives. Lack of frame control is anoth er barrier faced by human being in decision making where they failed to consciously define the problem in more ways than one or being unduly influenced by others. Some people also tend to feel overconfidence in their judgment. This situation also could obstructed a good-decision making as people failed to collect the key factual information because they are too confidence and overly assured of their assumptions and opinions. Another obstacle faced by people in getting a good-decision making is shortsighted shortcuts, where they rely in appropriately on â€Å"rules of thumb† such as implicitly trusting the most readily available information or anchoring too much on convenient facts. When making a decision, humans have the tendency to believe that they can keep all the information they discovered straight in their heads and therefore, improvise with little preparation. They should follow a systematic procedure when making the final choice. When making decisions within a group, common thing that happens is a group failure. People in the group assume that with many smart people involved, good choices will follow automatically and this action will caused failure in managing group decision-making. Humans are likely to protect their ego causing them fooling themselves about feedback. In this case, they are failed to interpret the evidence from past outcomes for what it really says. Humans also expecting that experience will make lessons accessible naturally and they tend to neither keeping track of the consequences of their choices, nor investigating the results in ways to uncover their key lessons. Decisions process needs to audited and failure to this action means failed to create organized approach to understanding their own decision-making, so that they remain constantly exposed to all the mistakes mentioned before. As in the matter of AI, machines have the possibility of breakdown which is disadvantageous. No matter how easy the task can be completed by AI, if there is a case of malfunction occurring, the whole thing means nothing. AI also have the tendency to lose the essential information or mistakenly modified or overwrite them. AI or a computer system needs to be switched off on a daily basis as results for maintenance which restrain the output and efficiency of the machine. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION AI has the potential in various field of technology such as computer science, robotics, healthcare and even music. There are now growing efforts to unite these fields of research and create new technologies out of them. However, despite of all the manner of innovative approaches, there are still a far gap between artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Some people might argue that Ai is only the matter of processing power, but some people believe that true AI will uncover the deep understanding of how human intelligence works. AI capabilities are still questionable but in several decades to come, AI can promise infinite possibilities of growth in technology. REFERENCES Westenberg, M. (1993). Decision traps: The ten barriers to brilliant decision-making how to overcome them. Acta Psychologica, 83(1), 67-69. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(93)90036-q. Ishak, W. H. W., Siraj, F. (n.d). ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN MEDICAL APPLICATION: AN EXPLORATION. Langen, P. A., Katz, J. S., Dempsey, G., Pompano, J. (1993). REMOTE MONITORING OF HIGH-RISK PATIENTS USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. Paper presented at the United States Patent. Szolovits, P., Doyle, J., Long, W. J., Kohane, I., and Pauker, S. G. (1994). Guardian Angel: Patient-Centred Health Information Systems. Technical Report MIT/LCS/TR-604. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Shortliffe, E. H., Fagan, L. M. and Yu, V. L. (2000). The Infectious Diseases Physician and the Internet. In Mandell, G.L., Bennett, J.E. and Dolin, R. (Eds.), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Churchill Livingstone, Inc., Pennsylvania, pp. 3258-3263. Shortliffe, E. H. (1987). Computer Programs to Support Clinical Decision Making. Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 258, No. 1. Detmer, W. M. and Shortliffe, E. H. (1997). Using the Internet to Improve Knowledge Diffusion in Medicine. Communications of the Associations of Computing Machinery, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 101 108. Wilson, M., Wilson, M. (2007). Feature Robotics Industry Forum – 2006. doi:10.1108/01439910710727432 Bogue, R., Bogue, R. (2014). The role of artificial intelligence in robotics. doi:10.1108/IR-01-2014-0300.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Muscular Dystrophy Essay -- Science Biology Health

Muscular Dystrophy Scientists have been struggling with the cause, treatment of, and cure for Muscular dystrophy since its discovery in 1886, by Dr. Guillaume Duchenne. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease, affecting thousands of people every year, two-thirds being children between the age of birth through adolescents. Muscular dystrophy can also occur with no family history of the disease. Muscular dystrophy is a degenerating disease, in which the skeletal muscles degenerate, lose their strength, and cause increasing disability and deformity. Muscles attached to the bones through tendons are responsible for movement in the human body, however, in muscular dystrophy the muscles become progressively weak. As the muscle fibers become extremely weak they start to die and are replaced by connective tissue. The connective tissue is fibrous and fatty rather than muscular. These replacement fibers are normally found in skin and scar tissue and are not capable of movement, which cause the muscles to become even weaker. While muscular dystrophy continues to be a debilitating disease, there are a variety of recognizable types, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or pseudohypertrophic, being the most common. In this disease, the muscles involved are in the upper thigh and pelvis. The disease strikes in early childhood, usually between the ages of three and five years of age. This form is genetic, transmitted from mothers who are known to be carriers of the defective gene. Although rare, females with a history of ovarian dysgenesis have been known to develop symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a defect in the dystrophin gene that is vital for healthy muscles. The abnormality causes l... ...g doctors are able to educate couples on the rare possibility that they may produce affected offspring. By doing so couples can make the decision whether to continue the inheritance of the defective gene to their offspring, or make a conscience decision not to. Through medical research we will have a cure of how to stop this debilitating disease. Work Cited Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy." The New Complete Medical And Health Encyclopedia. 1996 ed. "Facts About Muscular Dystrophy MD)." Muscular Dystrophy Association Publications. 6/2001. "Facts About Muscular Dystrophy (MD)." Muscular Dystrophy Association Publication. 6/2001 "Muscular Dystrophy." New Standard Encyclopedia. 1996 ed. Robinson, Richard. "Muscular dystrophy." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. 1999 ed.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Compare/Contrast Works of Edgar Allan Poe Essay

Edgar Allan Poe’s view on poetry is that all poems must be a creation of beauty. In his eyes, depression and sadness is beautiful. He thinks that the death of a young beautiful woman is itself full of beauty. Poe’s way of beauty is a one of a kind compared to other poets and writers. In both â€Å"Annabel Lee† and â€Å"The Raven†, Poe writes about this so-called beauty. In â€Å"Annabel Lee†, a young man is mourning the death of a beautiful young lady. Even though the woman had died quite some time ago, the man is still in melancholy. He misses her terribly and constantly thinks of how she was she was tragically taken from him by the angels who were jealous of their love, and by her family who didn’t think the he himself was capable of bringing her to a final resting place. He loved Annabel Lee more than any other human can love another. â€Å"And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side of my darling, my life and my bride, in her sepulcher there by the sea, in her tomb by the side of the sea.† This quote shows how much this man loved her, by sleeping next to the tomb every night. In â€Å"The Raven†, a man, most likely older than the man in â€Å"Annabel Lee†, mourns the death of his love whom he called â€Å"Lenore†. Lenore, like Annabel Lee, had died several years earlier. In â€Å"The Raven†, man hears tapping on his chamber door and sees the curtains slowly swaying. He believes that it can be no other than Lenore. Unfortunately for him though, it is only but a bird. A large, black bird known as the Raven. A raven is usually symbolized as something dark and sinister. Throughout the poem, the man is tormented by his lost love, Lenore, who came back in the form of a Raven. Although the men in these two stories are similar because they both mourn for their loved ones, they are also different. The man in â€Å"The Raven† may be sad about his lost, but his love cannot compare to that of the man in â€Å"Annabel Lee†.In these two short stories, the two main characters, as mentioned before, are very much alike, yet at the same time different. They both lose the woman of their life and they both are still in mourning. Poe’s poems are  usually about such sorrow and sadness, and it is this that makes his poems beautiful.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Norman Morrison and The Things They Carried

War has such a violent nature that it has affected many individuals in many different ways. The most obvious of these is through the lives of the soldiers who experience it first-hand. However, even those who simply follow its progress and who have empathy for those in the wake of such mass slaughter are affected by the event. Because of the savageness in war and the resulting psychological and emotional effects of this experience on such war-ravaged men, many writers have tried to tackle the subject. Norman Morrison and The Things They Carried are two literary pieces that have reflected the gravity of warfare and its impact on men who have struggled with its violence. Tim O’Brien and Adrian Mitchell wrote pieces that resounded with their views on war. Both employed the use of the lives of their characters to get a point across to their readers. War is terrible. Its effects echo on in an individual’s life and the images of the terror of war is eternally implanted in the lives of those who survive it. â€Å"He was a slim, dead, almost dainty young man of about twenty. He lay with one leg bent beneath him, his jaw in his throat, his face neither expressive nor inexpressive. One eye was shut. The other was a star-shaped hole.† (O’Brien, 1998) The drive of both pieces is to show the effect of the deaths of those considered to be the â€Å"enemy† on those involved in the war. War is not indiscriminate hate but indiscriminate killing and both writers condemn these violent acts through their words. O’Brien (1998) shows this clearly through The Man I Killed while Mitchell (1997) does so through the life of a man, Norman Morrison, who fought the war every day in his heart, at home. The two works are very comprehensive in sharing with the reader the experience of the war and the experience of life after the war. Although the actions of these individual’s are clearly a result of psychological disorders, Tim O’Brien and Adrian Mitchell give their audience a look into the mindsets of those who are actually experiencing these events. It is not a trip into the mind of disturbed individuals who have lost control of themselves but rather it is a clear view into the life of someone who has experienced darkness and terror and who cannot, for the life of him, resolve it with the comforts and peace that he once knew. â€Å"All that peace, man, it felt so good it hurt. I want to hurt it back.† (O’Brien, 1998) Norman Morrison was a completely new aspect of the war that no one was prepared to see. Although the war’s effects on the soldiers were already clear, its effects on those left â€Å"at home† was not. Yes, there were those actively voicing out their concerns about the events, denouncing the war and demanding a stop to the violence, but how far did it go? How far did their empathy for those involved in the war go? Mitchell (1997) answers this for us, â€Å"He simply burned away his clothes, his passport, his pink-tinted skin, put on a new skin of flame and became Vietnamese.† Thus war became not only about those on foreign shores, not only about those holding the guns and the ammunitions. It became something more palpable. It became about everyone who was part of the countries at war. It became about the victims in the country where the war was happening and about those from the opposite country who felt not only for their own soldiers but also for the â€Å"innocent† victims. In conclusion, it can be said that both literary pieces spoke of war. Both presented it through the lives of individuals who were involved in the war. This involvement was broad and included all of those who empathized with the events involved in war and those whose lives were directly affected by the violence. The tragic deaths of those in the path of the savage war were the tipping point that drove many individuals to the brink. References O’Brien, T. (1998). The things they carried. New York: Broadway Books Mitchell, A. (1997) Norman Morrison. In Out Loud. London: W.H. Allen Publishers

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Effects of World Hunger

Effects of World Hunger Introduction According to the World Food Programme (WFP), approximately 925 million people in the world are undernourished today. That means that one out of seven people is not able to get sufficient food to lead a healthy and active life. This makes hunger be on the top of the list of risks to good health globally.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Effects of World Hunger specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effects of hunger as risks to health are much higher than those of â€Å"AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis all combined† (World Food Programme p. 1). Hunger refers to unavailability of food (World Hunger Education Service p. 1), but it is also taken to mean vulnerability to disease due to micronutrient deficiencies. Effects of hunger are adverse, crippling not only the individual but also becoming a burden to a developing world. Food security is not a concern for the developing and the underdeveloped coun tries alone but it for the developed states, such as the United States. Statistics released in September 2011 indicate that in the year 2010, 14.5% of all households were food-insecure (that is one out of every seven households) with 5.4% of all the United States households having very low food security (World Hunger Education Service p. 1). There are arguments that the United States shoulders the blame for world hunger as regards to its spending so much on defense purposes and military operations. For example, in Afghanistan and Iraq, such tactics caused extreme poverty in these countries. America should not be blamed alone for world hunger, but it is logical to argue that it takes some of the blame; many factors contribute to hunger. Poverty being the principal cause calls for measures to be taken to address its eradication as an initiative to reduce world hunger. America being a superpower has a major role to play in world hunger level reduction as it has an edge on global econom ic matters and in how financial aid is allocated by financial bodies like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund to poor countries. This paper considers America’s role in world hunger, how the country has increased it through poverty caused by its military operations, sanctions due to political interests and its influence in allocation of funds to political allies and â€Å"friendly states† rather than to poverty stricken countries. World hunger is a result of many interrelated factors. America does play a major role in, but there are also a lot of factors that cannot be simply ignored when it comes to issues of world poverty. This paper argues America’s influence on world hunger, the roles it has played and other factors that have led to the current facts and figures as well as the place food aid takes in eradicating hunger.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Losses that are incurred due to food wastage result in gaps in the food supply chains and inadequate food storage facilities. The paper also examines that current food production is sufficient enough to feed the current world population and shows that this participation in export commodities is opposed to food producing agriculture. Undemocratic economic and political policies conflicts because of poverty of stricken nations, and our attitude towards hunger are among other factors that maintain the status quo when it comes to addressing world hunger. Activities of the United States indicate a tendency to increase world hunger; it seems to give the perception that it is fond to bask in the glory of the world’s dependency on foreign aid, so that it can use the same as a manipulation to the realization of its foreign policies (Maddocks p. 23). It is established that world hunger, as a risk to health, ranks greater than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosi s all combined, and statistics indicate that 800 million people in the world sleep on an empty stomach every day that is approximately one of nine people (Swanson para 1). As such, measures to deal with hunger should be put in place. In the book â€Å"World hunger: 12 myths,† a story is told about a woman, Amanda Espinoza, who had six stillbirths and witnessed the death of five of her children before the age of one. This gives a whole new meaning to the word hungry; it means looking helplessly at those who are dear to you, but doom to die and having no choices and opportunities to help them (Lappe, Collins Rosset pg 3). World hunger can never be addressed through food aid. Poverty being the principal cause of world hunger should be treated adequately. If efforts at reducing the level of world hunger involve providing food aid, then the principal cause of hunger, which is poverty, would still remain. In most cases, foreign aid causes harm instead of helping to manage with thi s problem (Lappe, Collins Rosset p 1). While providing food aid as a temporary measure of elimination hunger, a long term solution of eradicating poverty should be embraced (Shah para 2). In the global economic system, there are two main measures that can be adopted by poor people to increase their income level. For example, due to trade, wages in rich economies tend to reduce because of availability of machinery, but in poor countries, they increase. Immigration to countries with labor deficit economies is also a response of people affected by poverty. The structure of the United States economic system is based on the â€Å"free enterprise economy† approach where there is competition for employment, with most jobs being offered to the best qualified employee, thus joblessness affects mainly those who are under qualified.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Effects of World Hunger specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn Mo re Revolutions are attempts to transform the political and economic structures so as to conform to the needs of the poor. Thus, to understand the dynamics behind these revolutions, attention needs to be paid to the inequities between the rich and the poor that lead to anti-western ideologies, dealing with world hunger constructively (Nessan Beckmann p 12). The structure of the United States political system focuses more on concerns that are not fundamental to the people. For instance, the expenditure on military operations takes up half of the â€Å"US federal government discretionary expenditures† with expenses allocated to poverty alleviation (World Hunger Education Service p. 1). Joblessness and administration, to a greater extent, turning a blind eye to the issues of the poor play a major role at increasing poverty and growth of the level of world hunger. The structures of political and economic systems are the underlying causes of poverty and hunger since contro l over resources is based on economic, political or military power. This power, in most cases, is possessed by the minority which may not have the interests of the poor at heart. The US economic crisis had a great impact on world poverty; many countries have participated in international markets making themselves more vulnerable to recessions in big economies. It is noted that hunger also results from conflicts. Nevertheless, the UNHCR shows clearly that poverty is all the same the greatest cause. This is because the 2008 report showed that chronic hunger affected approximately 1 billion people compared to a smaller figure of 36 million who felt the effects of conflicts through displacement. Democracy, as we know it, is accountability of the majority. Well structured democratic states are those in which the majority of the population contributes on the decisions that affect their interests. When leadership is accountable to the majority, then the state is said to be democratic. With the absence of democracy in the economic lives of the people, the majority will be made powerless on the issues that affect them most (Lappe, Collins Rosset pg 4). It is sad to say that the United States plays a major role in the institution of undemocratic systems of governments. After it seized Puerto Rico in 1898, sugar companies from the United States put up vast sugar plantations consequently engaging in the eviction of farmers. By the year 1925, 80% of the whole land was owned by 2% of the population, rendering a shocking 70% of the population landless. With 70% being landless, many individuals were â€Å"out of work†, so cheap labor became available. Women were considered docile and subject to â€Å"loss- due to pregnancy†. This resulted in an extensive sterilization campaign funded by the United States government (Lappe, Collins Rosset p. 37).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Globally, the food grown is enough to â€Å"provide over 2800 calories per day to every man, woman and child† (The Rational Radical para 4) .This is sufficient to make us all obese, but in most countries, especially, in the third world countries, small scale farmers are forced to be hungry as most of the fertile lands are used to grow export crops by multinational corporations. The United States, by creating a demand for these export crops, becomes a player in this injustice to the poor (The Rational Radical para 5-7). Hunger related issues are many and inter-related to economics and other poverty causing factors. These include among others diversion of the usage of land from food productive agriculture to export oriented use (Shah para 3). It is unbearable to note that a nation in the sub-Saharan Africa that has 213 million severely malnourished people still exports food (Lappe, Collins Rosset p. 10). In dealing with world hunger, we perceive that it has an effect on the ki nd of solutions presented to solve it. If the problem is considered in terms of numbers, then it implies that data should be also used as a part of the solution. A great amount of people die because of hunger annually or go to bed without food every night. Hunger makes it clear that coping with human emotions is the most painful task. Hunger means powerlessness at its extreme (Lappe, Collins Rosset p 3). World hunger is not a result of failure in food production, but ineffective supply of food to starve stricken populations. People do not go hungry because food is scarce but rather because of insufficient income to afford it. World hunger is seen as a result of global trade together with economic policies that cause extreme poverty. For many years, food production is still connected with the growing populations. Thus, in some cases, hunger will be witnessed in economies producing food surpluses because people cannot afford food. Hunger is caused by poverty. Though it may be pointed that this problem is an economic issue as well as political one which in the long run becomes an economic issue (Shah para 3). 40% of the food produced is wasted in post-harvest losses in India. This is more pronounced in vegetables. These wastages can be reduced by improved food processing industries, proper infrastructure and reducing or eliminating gaps in supply. Food wastage technically happens when retailers and mostly consumers throw edible foodstuffs as trash. Food losses are realized as a result of underdeveloped infrastructure, poor food production mechanisms and underdeveloped technological advancement (Jasmuheen p. 3). The Food and Agricultural Organization report on â€Å"global food losses and food waste† released on May 11, 2011 indicated that in Rome alone, approximately a third of food produced worldwide annually is lost or wasted i.e. that is 1.3 billion tones (FAO para 1). This is quite alarming considering the millions who die yearly due to starvation. It is also clear that up to 220m tons of food is wasted in rich economies. This is in contrast to 230m tons that the sub-Saharan Africa manages to produce. The quantity of food lost and wasted annually was approximately equal to half of the global cereals crop (2.3 billion ton in 2009/2010) (FAO para 3). With these statistics, it is quiet illogical to shift blame on a single factor. Reduction of food wastages and losses, if implemented, can reduce world hunger adversely. Even though the United States takes some credit for world hunger, it has made recognizable attempts at ending world starvation through financial aids. Establishment of the â€Å"Fighting world hunger: U.S food aid policy and the food for peace program† has helped in the disbursement of millions of dollars as financial aid and tons of food are provided as an aid annually. Wealthy nations are quite selfish in development assistance, and, moreover, the extremely poor are seldom the sole beneficiaries when they off er foreign aid. In the year 2004, â€Å"the ratio of development assistance to gross national income was 0.17% far below the united nations target of 0.7%† (Bassett Nelson pg 168) in order to witness the realization of the millennium development goals by 2015, rich nations have to be more committed to offering aid programs as means of improving long term developments like health and infrastructure. This financial aid in the form of â€Å"foreign assistance programs† is, however, with ill motives as they are used as tools to the realization of foreign policies. It is argued that American foreign aid is used to maintain the United States leadership in the international scene. Anyway, this foreign economic assistance is not geared towards ending world hunger as it is realized that 15 countries received over half of the total U.S financial support in the 1990s. Israel and Egypt alone took home more than a third of this financial aid. The 10 poorest countries in the world took only 5% of the total U.S financial foreign assistance in the year 1994. Food aid, with the exception of emergency relief, can encourage over-reliance of a country on food and financial aid, and thus more hunger and poverty. Free or cheap food encourages laziness, as a result, the hardworking local farmers will not be able to market their produce, and thus they are driven into unemployment and poverty in the long run. This was the case in Somalia when the civil war of 1991 broke out. Disruption of the transportation network threatened 4.5 million people with malnutrition disease. The U.S delayed relief until December 1992 when the people had witnessed the worst and were on their road to recovery. Death rate was seen a drop from 300 to 70 a day. Harvesting had already started in the regions of Shebell river valley and Afgoye. Sorghum, corn and rice were available, but the U.S in its cunning nature poured into the foreign aid, dropping the prices of the harvests by 75%. Even with the fall in prices, it became quite difficult to sell the products. Not even the United States could buy something, so it claimed that the mandate it was offered dictated that they could buy only from the U.S governments. This forced the farmers to abandon the farms and queue for handouts of foreign food aid (Lappe, Collins Rosset p. 136). This type of food aid is usually termed as ‘tied aid’. The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization encourages cash based food aid as opposed to â€Å"tied aid†. Cash based food aid is advantageous as it allows developing countries to buy from local farmers with food surpluses, thus eliminating shipping costs and also encouraging hard work as well as reducing poverty rates. Thus, it becomes a development solution in the long run (Bassett Nelson p 170). Poverty eradication can be viewed as the best solution for ending world hunger. Dependency on foreign aid is destructive to a nation, and due to issues related to poli cy implementation, it may take too long for foreign aid to be received. Minimizing food losses and wastages and encouraging cash based food help are also other factors that are vital in the eradication of world hunger. Foreign aid should be given through an independent body like the United Nations. Bassett, Thomas J. Winter-Nelson, Alex E. The atlas of world hunger. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2010. Print. Jasmuheen. Ambassadors of Light: World Health World Hunger Project. New York, NY:, 2007. Print. Lappe, Frances M., Collins Joseph and Rosset Peter. World hunger: 12 myths. Oxford, UK: Earthscan, 1998. Print. Maddocks. Steven World Hunger. New Jersey: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2004 Print. Nessan, Craig L. Beckmann David. Give us this day: a Lutheran proposal for ending world hunger. Minneapolis MN: Augsburg Books, 2003. Print. Shah, Anup. â€Å"World hunger and poverty†. Global Issues. 22 Aug 2010. Web. Swanson, Ryan. â€Å"Fighting world hunger: U.S. food aid policy and the food for peace program.† ResourceLibrary, Oct 2004. Web. The Rational Radical. World hunger, economic injustice the U.S. n.d. Web. World Food Programme. World hunger. n.d. Web. World Hunger Education Service. 2011 world hunger and poverty facts and statistics. n.d. Web.

Monday, November 4, 2019

HR business expansion to china Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

HR business expansion to china - Essay Example The other possibility is to have them sign a contract up front but Chinese employees do not expect to spend more than two years working for any industry so it will be limited. There are many unique considerations in the Human Resources realm when moving a business to China. Some of those can be overcome and some of them cannot. It must be remembered that the US has specific standards in how employees are treated and this remains a US company while China has one of the worst records in the world for how humans are treated. There, of course will be the usual things to consider which are many compensation, fair labor rules, diversity, work hours, training, vacation and holidays, as well as other issues. As noted in our explanation below, there are some major issues to consider in whether or not to send Expats or hire them. If it is decided to train them, it must be remembered that some o that training will need to be in the US and that cost will run between $8 and10 thousand per trip. In China, there is not the same expected loyalty to a company because of this expense which means that the company may spend it and do the training only to have the employee be offered a better salary because they are trained and to move jobs. The suggestion here that may help get around some of this cost is to have them sign a contract up front (Wang & XU, 2005). Attracting these people will also be somewhat difficult right now as there is plenty of competition going on. Increased numbers of holiday and improved pay rates help but there are things that Chinese professionals want that may be better consideration such as where they live. Corporate apartments set up with a little more space than they are used to might help. It is a matter of being creative to both attract these professional and to retain them (Sonnenfelf & Peiperl, 1988). Cross Cultural Work Issues China's labor rates are significantly different according to which region of the country is considered. The average unskilled worker will cost approximately $50 per month per person. However, in Shanghai, the same position may cost $150 per person per month. To be outside of Shanghai by even 20 miles will drop labor rates to the $50 per month cost. The US business is used to being trained on multiple diversity issues. In China there are really no diversity issues and the HR specialists there will have difficulty in understanding, in fact may be very confused as to what this means. It is suggested that diversity training not occur in China as it will confuse the workers as well as the HR specialists. An example would be an add from a company that read "looking for women with fine motor skills for assembly job." This add confused the HR personnel. When ask why they simply said that it is a woman's job and only women will apply (Zhang, Wang, 2006). China actually is less diverse than any other area in the world. The vast majority of the population is ethnic Chinese. The laws in China, also do not protect diversity and do not view it as a concern. There is, in fact, open discrimination against women and it is part of the culture. There are some jobs that are considered male and some that are considered female. There are some issue s with religion that personnel from here should keep in mind when

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Contracting and Procurement in Project Management Essay - 1

Contracting and Procurement in Project Management - Essay Example Project procurement management is "the process of purchasing goods or services from the vendors" (Phillips, 2003). This very definition of the process suggest that the procurement is the process which involves external organizations as well as persons in the whole project management process. It therefore not only makes it more complicated but also a delicate job too as maintaining relationships with the vendors and suppliers sometimes become a very important element for the overall success of the project. Thus, it is of great importance that the procurement management should effectively be integrated into the overall process of project management so that project can get completed within budgeted times, costs and schedules. It is also important to understand that the process of procurement management is a phased process therefore it is not only time consuming but also need to have a more strategic outlook as it also provides an opportunity to develop long term relationships with the vendors. This presentation will present an overview of how the process of procurement management can fit into the whole project management besides discussing the various other aspects to get a braoder view of the whole process. Procurement is a process which requires the involvement of different resources including people, goods, services as well as other resources. It also involves the evaluation of tenders as well as estimation of different costs involved in the procurement process. This therefore requires that the project managers must take extreme care to manage different risks involved in the process. Since the process of procurement management involves different persons outside the project therefore project managers need to follow a systematic procedure. A procurement management process generally involves following processes: 1) Purchase and acquisition decisions 2) Contract Planning 3) Solicitation of seller responses 4) Selection of sellers 5) Administrating the contract 6) Contract closure The first phase of purchase and acquisition is about the determination of the different goods and services required to complete the project. This therefore requires that the project managers must clearly identify which project needs can be fulfilled through the procurement process. The emphasis, during this phase of the procurement, is mostly on what, how and when to acquire the resources required for the project. (Ghosh, 2007). Contract planning is the next important steps which require not only close monitoring of the existing policies and procedures of the firm but also require that the organization's strategic objectives and aims are achieved. It is important to understand that the very crux of the procurement management process is to make a conscious decision of whether to buy or build the resources required for the project to complete. It has also often been argued that the while planning for contracting, project managers must also take into account the various legal aspects of the contracting and that the drafting of the same should be done after taking into different legal as well as operational aspects of the contracting. While at the phase of the purchase and acquisition decisions, it is also important that the project managers must evaluate the seller responses after making acquisition decisions. It is quite possible that the project